Ceramic materials can be used in various applications, in particularly porosity in ceramic materials is be one of the key features for a wide range of applications.
They are used as lightweight structures, filters, acoustic or heat insulation, scaffolds and support structures for catalysis applications. Besides the low relative density, high temperature, as well local failure resistance, pore interconnectivity and permeability are interesting properties of porous ceramics. As example, they can be used as exhaust diesel filters or catalyst support structure in the automotive industry, as well as for filter or purification systems in the chemical and metal-processing industry, in waste-water treatment, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food technology. In addition, various porous ceramics, such as cellular lightweight structures, can be used as thermal and acoustic insulators, ceramic heaters and heat exchangers.
Porous ceramics show outstanding structural (open/closed pores, cell/pore shape) and physical (mechanical, thermal, electric and acoustic) properties depending on porosity, pore network, pore connectivity and pore shape depending on the fabrication process. With additive manufacturing of more complex structures with designed properties and macrostructure can be made. Adding additional functionalization enhances mechanical, thermal or catalytic properties of homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials. Functionalization can be done by additional active or non-active surface coatings, chemical reactions on the surface, increasing surface area by introduction of hierarchy or solid-state reactions between coating and support.
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